Dorothy Blair (2009) The Child in the Garden: An Evaluative Review of the Benefits of School Gardening, The Journal of Environmental Education, 40:2, 15-38, DOI: 10.3200/JOEE.40.2.15-38
Carrie Draper & Darcy Freedman (2010) Review and Analysis of the Benefits, Purposes, and Motivations Associated with Community Gardening in the United States, Journal of Community Practice, 18:4, 458-492, DOI: 10.1080/10705422.2010.519682
Ozer, E. J. (2007) The effects of school gardens on students and schools: Conceptualization and consideration for maximizing healthy development. Health Education and Behavior, 34: 846–863 .
Robinson-O'Brien, R., Story, M. and Heim, S. (2009) Impact of garden-based youth nutrition intervention programs: A review. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 109: 273–280 .
Machida D, Kushida O. (2020) The Influence of Food Production Experience on Dietary Knowledge, Awareness, Behaviors, and Health among Japanese: A Systematic Review, Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Feb 2;17(3):924. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17030924 .
José-Reyes Ruiz-Gallardo, Alonso Verde & Arturo Valdés (2013) Garden-Based Learning: An Experience With “At Risk” Secondary Education Students, The Journal of Environmental Education, 44:4, 252-270, DOI: 10.1080/00958964.2013.786669
Anne C. Bell & Janet E. Dyment (2008) Grounds for health: the intersection of green school grounds and health‐promoting schools, Environmental Education Research, 14:1, 77-90, DOI: 10.1080/13504620701843426
Ellen A. Skinner, Una Chi & The Learning-Gardens Educational Assessment Group 1 (2012) Intrinsic Motivation and Engagement as “Active Ingredients” in Garden-Based Education: Examining Models and Measures Derived From Self-Determination Theory, The Journal of Environmental Education, 43:1, 16-36, DOI: 10.1080/00958964.2011.596856
[DM1]“Although the history of community gardening in the United States is plentiful, the current scholarly literature on the topic is limited. This review seeks to expand on four recent reviews of the available literature (Blair, 2009; McCormack, Laska, Larson, & Story, 2010; Ozer, 2007; Robinson-O'Brien, Story, & Heim, 2009). The purposes of the previous reviews include examining nutrition implications and intervention programs, as well as school gardening. Three out of four of the reviews focus solely on youth (Blair, 2009; McCormack et al., 2010; Ozer, 2007; Robinson-O'Brien et al., 2009).
Nutrition and school gardening are far from an exhaustive description of the purposes, benefits, and motivations associated with community gardening, and populations, in addition to youth, are known to be participants. This review, therefore, identifies a broader array of community gardening research that has been performed since 1999. In doing so, we seek to examine the following, to inform future research and practice implications: the current status of the scholarly literature available on the topic; themes related to the benefits, purposes, and motivations associated with community gardening; and the shortcomings of the identified research.
“Youth gardening programs and projects were found to produce positive dietary, academic, and developmental results. Gardening-enhanced nutrition programs increased participants' nutrition knowledge; fruit and vegetable consumption, preference, and asking behaviors at home; physical activity; and gardening self-efficacy”
Youth gardening programs, not designated as a nutrition intervention, were found to promote youth development (e.g., social relationships, respect for other individuals and cultures), improve access and consumption of healthy foods, and increase science achievement and environmental attitudes
Nearly 50% of the articles reviewed mentioned health benefits, in the form of physical activity, diet, and/or mental health (Alaimo et al., 2008; Allen et al., 2008; Armstrong, 2000a, 2000b; Austin et al., 2006; D'Abundo & Carden, 2008; Ferris et al., 2001; Graham & Zidenberg-Cherr, 2005; Hannah & Oh, 2000; Heim et al., 2009; Hermann et al., 2006; Hess & Winner, 2007; Koch et al., 2006; Lautenschlager & Smith, 2007a, 2007b; Lawson, 2007; Lineberger & Zajicek, 2000; McAleese & Rankin, 2007; McCormack et al., 2010; Morris et al., 2001; Morris & Zidenberg-Cherr, 2002; Ozer, 2007; Parmer et al., 2009; Pudup, 2008; Robinson-O'Brien et al., 2009; Twiss et al., 2003).
[DM2]“This review draws on ecological theory to conceptualize school gardens as systemic interventions with the potential for promoting the health and well-being of individual students in multiple interdependent domains and for strengthening the school environment as a setting for positive youth development. This review (a) summarizes the small literature regarding the impact of school garden curricula on student or school functioning, (b) provides a conceptual framework to guide future inquiry, (c) discusses implications of this conceptualization for practice, and (d) suggests further research needed to better inform practice.”
[DM3]“Findings from this review suggest that garden-based nutrition intervention programs may have the potential to promote increased fruit and vegetable intake among youth and increased willingness to taste fruits and vegetables among younger children; however, empirical evidence in this area is relatively scant. Therefore, there is a need for well-designed, evidenced-based, peer-reviewed studies to determine program effectiveness and impact. Suggestions for future research directions, including intervention planning, study design, evaluation, and sustainability are provided.”
[DM4]“Thus, food production experiences were suggested to have a positive influence on dietary knowledge, dietary awareness, food preference, dietary behaviors, and mental health among the Japanese. However, the overall quality of the included studies was low. Further verification with randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies is required.”
[DM5]“The reengagement of disenchanted secondary students is one of the priorities of the educational system. Over a six-year period (2003–2004 to 2008–2009), 63 disruptive and low-performance secondary school students were integrated into a two-year garden-based learning program, which took place in southeastern Spain. This article intends to assess the quantitative and qualitative changes in both academic outcomes and personal behavior brought about by the experience. Results show that school failure decreased substantially, while the dropout rate was reduced from an initial 30% to zero in some years. Disruptive episode control improved significantly in the classroom, where teachers observed a decided improvement in students' skills, self-esteem, and self-confidence.”
[DM6]“Despite the growing body of research on green school grounds, relatively little has been written about their relationship with health promotion, particularly from a holistic health perspective. It is this relationship that we explore in this paper – the power and potential of green school grounds to promote health and well‐being and to be an integral element of multifaceted, school‐based health promotion strategies. Specifically, we bring together recent research to examine green school grounds as places where the interests of educators and children’s health advocates can meet, inform and support one another. By grounding our comments in recent thinking about health‐promoting schools, we highlight the growing body of evidence that green school grounds, as a school setting, can contribute to children’s physical, mental, social and spiritual well‐being.
This is a Test
This Glossary Term (GT) was posted as a rough draft in 2012. Comments are welcome. See below for how.
Please post comments and suggestions about this summary on the landing page for this section.
Writers, contributors, editors of this summary include
For updates and reader comments on this section, go to our Mini-Blog on School Food & Nutrition
(The number of summaries completed or drafted in this section are listed below)