Substance Abuse: Impact of the School Environment (BT)This is a featured page

This page contains a list of research reviews and articles as well as a listing of reports and resources on substance abuse prevention and schools. In this collection and elsewhere in this Encyclopedia, we use the term "substance abuse" to include other addictions such as gambling, problematic use of the Internet, tobacco and other addictive behaviours. Visitors to this page are encouraged to use the "Easy Edit" tool found at the top of the page to insert additional items. All versions of the page are automatically saved, so no previous versions can be lost.


AADAC. 2002. An Overview of Risk and Protective Factors. The Alberta Youth Experience Survey 2002.(Review)

McNeely, C., & Faici, C. (2004). School connectedness and the transition into and out of health-risk behavior among adolescents: A comparison of social belonging and teacher support. Journal of School Health, 74(7)

Bond, L., Butler, H., Thomas, L., Carlin, J., Glover, S., Bowes, G., & Patton, G. (2007). Social and school connectedness in early secondary school as predictors of late teenage substance use. Mental health, and academic outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40.

Flay BR. 2002. Positive youth development requires comprehensive health promotion programs. Am J Health Behav. 26(6):407-24. (Review)

Flay B. 2002. Positive youth development requires comprehensive health promotion programs. Newsletter of the American Academy of Health Behaviour. Prepared for acceptance of the Research Laureate Medallion from the American Academy of Health Behavior, Annual Conference, Napa, California, March 25, 2002. (Review)

Key Concepts

Connectedness to School

School Climate

Core mandates, constraints and concerns of educators and education systems

B-1 Impact of the Social Environment/Customs of the School

Dewitt, D., Akst, L., Braun, K., Lefebvre, L., McKee, C., Rye, B.J., Shain, M. (2002). Sense of School Membership: A Mediating Mechanism Linking Student Perceptions of School Culture With Academic and Behavioural Functioning. Toronto, ON: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

Aveyard, P., Markham, W.A., and Cheng, K.K. (2004). A methodological and substantive review of the evidence that schools cause pupils to smoke. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 2253-2265.

Furr-Holden, C. D., Ialongo, N. S., Anthony, J. C., Petras, H., & Kellam, S. G. (2004). Developmentally inspired drug prevention: Middle school outcomes in a school-based randomized prevention trial. Drug and alcohol dependence, 73(2), 149-158.

Youth Friendly Social Places in Schools

Nature/Frequency of School-wide Events and Activities with Social Components

B-2 Impact of the Physical Environment of the School

School size

Security Procedures

Age/Appearance of the School Building

Use of shade, trees, landscaping, gardens

Safety of student routes to/from school


Monitoring of Risk Areas in or near the school

B-3 Influence of School Organization and Practices

Student Evaluation/Accreditation/Recognition Practices

Hallfors D, Vevea J, Iritani B, Cho H, Khatapoush S, Saxe L. 2002. Truancy, grade point average, and sexual activity: A meta-analysis of risk indicators for youth substance use. J Sch Health. 72(5):205-11. (Meta-analysis)

Use of Homerooms

Use of Teachers as Student Advisors

Age/Grade Groupings (Especially Middle/Senior Secondary Grades

B-4 Impact of Transitions (From elementary to high school, from school to school, from school to work or college)

From Home/Pre-schools/Daycare to Elementary School

D'Amico, E. J., Ellickson, P. L., Wagner, E. F., Turrisi, R., Fromme, K., Ghosh-Dastidar, B., et al. (2005). Developmental considerations for substance use interventions from middle school through college. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(3), 474-483.

Schaps, E., & Solomon, D. (2003). The role of the school’s social environment in preventing student drug use. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 23(3)

L Fox, G Dunlap, L Cushing (2002) Early Intervention, Positive Behavior Support, and Transition to School, Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Fall 2002 vol. 10 no. 3 149-157

From Elementary to Secondary School

Julia B. Smith (1997) Effects of Eighth-Grade Transition Programs on High School Retention and Experiences, The Journal of Educational Research, Volume 90, Issue 3, 1997, pages 144-152

Olga Reyes, Karen Gillock, Kimberly Kobus (1994) A longitudinal study of school adjustment in urban, minority adolescents: Effects of a high school transition program, American Journal of Community Psychology, June 1994, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 341-369

Donna Jovanovichb (2006) Developing an Effective Transition Program for Students Entering Middle School or High School, The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, Volume 80, Issue 1, 2006, pages 15-25

From School to School/Transient/Homeless Youth

From School to Work/Including Part Time Work while in Sec School

Cashman,C.M., Ruotsalainen,J.H., Greiner,B.A., Beirne,P.V., Verbeek,J.H. (2009) Alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers for preventing injury Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 2 Art. No.: CD006566

Aldana, S.G. (2001) Financial impact of health promotion programs: A comprehensive review of the literature American Journal of Health Promotion 15 5 296 320

Webb,G., Shakeshaft,A., Sanson-Fisher,R., Havard,A. (2009) A systematic review of work-place interventions for alcohol-related problems Addiction 104 3 365 377 0965-2140

Pelletier, K.R. (2005) A review and analysis of the clinical and cost-effectiveness studies of comprehensive health promotion and disease management programs at the worksite: Update VI 2000-2004 Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine 47 10 1051 1058

Riedel, J.E., Lynch, W., Baase, C., Hymel, P., Peterson, K.W. (2001) The effect of disease prevention and health promotion on workplace productivity: A literature review American Journal of Health Promotion 15 3 167 191

Roman, P.M., Blum, T.C. (1996) Alcohol: A review of the impact of worksite interventions on health and behavioral outcomes American Journal of Health Promotion 11 2 136 149

From Secondary School to College/University/Training

Carter, A.C., Brandon, K.O., & Goldman, M.S. (2010). The college and noncollege experience: A review of the factors that influence drinking behavior in young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(5), 742–750.

Carey, K.B., Scott-Sheldon, L.A.J., Carey, M.P., DeMartini, K.S. (2007) Individual-level interventions to reduce college student drinking: A meta-analytic review Addictive Behaviors 32 11 2469 2494 0306-4603

Hunter, F.J., Mazurek, M.B. (2004) The effectiveness of intervention studies to decrease alcohol use in college undergraduate students: An integrative analysis Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 1 2 102 119

Moreira,M.T., Smith,L.A., Foxcroft,D. (2009) Social norms interventions to reduce alcohol misuse in university or college students Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009 3 Art. No.: CD006748

Fager,J., Mazurek,M.B. (2004) The effectiveness of intervention studies to decrease alcohol use in college undergraduate students: An integrative analysis Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 1 2 102 119

Barnett, N.P., Read, J.P. (2005) Mandatory alcohol intervention for alcohol-abusing college students: A systematic review Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 29 2 147 158

Elliot, J.C., Carey, K.B., Bolles, J.R. (2008) Computer-based interventions for college drinking: A qualitative review Addictive Behaviors 33 8 994 1005

Larimer,M.E., Cronce,J.M. (2007) Identification, prevention, and treatment revisited: Individual-focused college drinking prevention strategies 1999-2006 Addictive Behaviors 32 11 2439 2468 0

Walters,S.T., Neighbors,C. (2005) Feedback interventions for college alcohol misuse: What, why and for whom? Addictive Behaviors 30 6 1168 1182

Branscum,P., Sharma,M. (2010) A review of motivational interviewing-based interventions targeting problematic drinking among college students Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 28 1 63 77

Transition Support Programs

Transition Support Program- Edmonton PublicSchools

Transition Support Program- Park PlazaTransitions

Transition Support Program- YMCA Enterprise Centre

Elementary to SecondarySchool Transition-

TransitionPlanning - the York Catholic DistrictSchoolBoard

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